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Device for the production of high-temperature steam is a steam boiler. The pressure of the water inside the boiler in the gaseous state, is much higher than atmospheric. Heating water takes place as a result of thermal energy by burning any fuel. Despite the fact that at the present time boilers are of a different design and may be used in industrial and domestic purposes, they have the same operating principle.
Boiler plants that generate steam from the water deserve special attention. They are rarely used to heat buildings, usually heating – their secondary function. The main task of such units is to produce steam for various processes. Depending on the parameters required, the steam at the exit is selected by the steam boiler device, providing these parameters.
The principle of action and types of steam boilers
If the purpose of heating plants is to heat the water to heat the house while not boiling it in the boiler tank, the operation of the steam boiler solves the opposite problem. It is to direct all the heat energy of fuel burning to boiling water and evaporating it. Some processes require an elevated vapor temperature, so the third stage of the unit is to heat it up to this temperature (overheating). The main performance of steam generators is pressure and productivity, which is expressed in tons in 1 hour.
They have one common feature: these are pipes made in different settings of different sections and shapes. Inside the pipes, one of the environments is moved by the participants in the heat transfer process, and from the outside they are washed by the second environment. In the heat exchangers inside there are hot combustion products that heat the water in the boiler tank to a state of steaming. Everything happens on the contrary in the water tube unit, where the snake is circulating water, and it warms outside with the flames of the burner and smoke gases.
The picture shows the design of a steam boiler with a roasting three-way heat exchanger. A three-way — this means that the smoke gases before ejection out will make three moves on the tubes washed by water. The first move is the combustion chamber itself, where the temperature is highest. At its end, the gases change direction, getting into the pipes of the second and then the third course. This movement of combustion products is prompted by the work of the fan plus the natural thrust of the chimney.
The level of water in the boiler tank of this structure is unstable, because in the process of heating its part boils and in the form of steam enters the apparatus separating small drops – a separator. Separation of liquid must be done necessarily, otherwise in steam pipes leading to consumers, there will be hydro-impacts, the result will be their destruction. Lack of water in the shirt must be constantly replenished, this involves a nutritious pump for the steam boiler.